Cards &


Like a whiplash

In a humid forest, dripping with resin, 150 million years ago, a loud crack echoed. Amongst towering sequoia trees, Apatosaurus announced its arrival by lashing its tail like a whip against the ground. A heavy rainstorm was underway, and water splashed up from the ground where an Allosaurus was busy devouring its latest prey. There has been much speculation about whether the massive long-necked dinosaurs, like Apatosaurus, had to partially live in water to alleviate the weight of their enormous bodies.

However, recent research indicates that they were fully terrestrial. They roamed on their four tower-like legs, whipping their tails and stretching their long, strong necks. The neck was likely used for combat, although we are still uncertain about what they fought over – the finest sequoia tree or the sweetest mate? That remains a mystery for future research to uncover. Most things about Apatosaurus were large, except for its tiny head, which closely resembled that of modern ungulates such as horses, rhinoceroses, zebras, and pigs. On its feet, it resembled an elephant, with enormous nail-like plates on the front of each foot.

Approximately 22 meters long

Up to 41 tons

Jurassic Period (155 – 150 million years ago)


Discovery sites
North America